Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Bhavan's Balabodha - Lessons 1 to 3

Bhavan's Balabodha - Lessons 1 to 3
Simplest sentence in any language is a single-word sentence, such as ‘Go’ गच्छ.
We need words to be able to express ourselves in any language.
In Sanskrit words are  primarily of 3 types.
  1. Nouns नाम, pronouns सर्वनाम, adjectives विशेषण - all these would have a gender लिङ्ग. They would hence be either masculine पुंल्लिङ्गि, neuter नपुंसकलिङ्गि or feminine स्त्रीलिङ्गि.
  2. Verbs क्रियापदम् e.g. गच्छ are words formed from verbal roots e.g. गम् . The verbal root is called as धातु.
  3. Adverbs, conjunctions, auxiliaries to verbs अव्ययम्.
    1. For example, in ‘Go there’ तत्र गच्छ , ‘there’ तत्र is an adverb.
    2. In a sentence ‘Go there and play’ तत्र गच्छ खेल च, ‘and’ च is a conjunction.
    3. In a sentence ‘Do not go there’ तत्र मा गच्छ, the word ‘not’ मा or न is an auxiliary to the verb, helping to make a negative sentence.
In the single-word sentence ‘Go’ the single word is a verb क्रियापदम् . In the single-word sentence ‘Go’ the verb is in the imperative mood आज्ञार्थ. First we shall learn making sentences in the imperative mood आज्ञार्थ.
The subject in the imperative mood आज्ञार्थ is ‘You’ त्वम्.
Words from Lesson 1 प्रथमः पाठः
In the text-book a glossary of words is given. Here the same glossary is tabulated by sorting the words by different types.
No.Masculine Noun पुंल्लिङ्गि नामNeuter Noun नपुंसकलिङ्गि नामFeminine Noun स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम Pronoun सर्वनामAdjective विशेषणम्Adverb, Conjunction, Auxiliary to verb अव्ययम्Verb (Verbal root) Imperative क्रियापदम् (धातु) आज्ञार्थ
1पाठ lessonपत्र letterत्वम् youएक oneन no, not(पठ् to read) पठ
2पुस्तक bookमधुर sweetमा no, not(लिख् to write) लिख
3अक्षर letter of alphabetस्वच्छ clean(पा to drink) पिब
4जल waterप्रथम first
5दुग्ध milk
6घृत ghee


1. Read and translate following sentences
१ त्वं पत्रं पठ = ---------- --------- ----------
२ त्वं पत्रं लिख = ---------- --------- ----------
३ त्वं दुग्धं पिब = ---------- --------- ----------
४ त्वं एकं पत्रं पठ  = ---------- --------- ---------- ---------
५ त्वं एकं पत्रं लिख = ---------- --------- ---------- ---------
६ त्वं मधुरं दुग्धं पिब = ---------- --------- ---------- ---------

2. Rewrite filling the blanks with proper words
१ त्वं -------- जलं -------- |
२ त्वं -------- पुस्तकं --------- |
३ त्वं पत्रं -------- |
४ एकं पुस्तकं ------ |
५ त्वं -------- घृतं ------------ |

3. Translate into Sanskrit
1 You write clear alphabets
2 Do not write a letter
3 Do not read a book
4 Drink sweet milk
5 Read a book

4. Make sentences using words from different columns in the table below.
Make both affirmative and negative sentences using/not using words in fourth column.
त्वम्एकम्
मधुरम्
स्वच्छम्
पत्रम्
दुग्धम्
जलम्
घृतम्
पुस्तकम्
मा
पिब
लिख
पठ


One can and should practise composing and translating (both ways - English to Sanskrit and vice versa) any number of sentences.

Words from Lesson 2 द्वितीयः पाठः
Masculine Noun पुंल्लिङ्गि नाम Neuter Noun नपुंसक लिङ्गि नाम Feminine Noun स्त्रीलिङ्गि नामPronoun सर्वनामAdjective विशेषणम्Adverb, Conjunction, Auxiliary to verb
अव्ययम्
Verb क्रियापदम् (धातु) आज्ञा र्थ

7अभ्यास study, practiceओदन boiled riceअलस lazyअत्र here(खेल् to play) खेल
8व्यायाम exerciseगृह house, homeद्वितीय secondतत्र there(कृ to do, to work) कुरु
9मोदक sweet ballमोदक sweetmeatमोदक pleasing, tasting sweetशीघ्रम् fast(गम् to go) गच्छ
10उद्यान gardenसत्वरम् immediately(आ + गम् to come) आगच्छ
11भोजन mealअपि also(खाद् to eat) खाद
12कार्य work, job, taskच and(क्रीड् to play) क्रीड
13प्रतिदिनम् everyday(भू to be, to exist) भव
14प्रथम firstप्रथमम् first
15पश्चात् later, from behind


Read and translate following sentences
१ तत्र क्रीड = ---------- --------- ----------
२ त्वं अत्र खेल = ---------- --------- ----------
३ कार्यं कुरु = ---------- --------- ----------
४ अलसः मा भव = ---------- --------- ----------
५ तत्र शीघ्रं गच्छ = ---------- --------- ----------
६ अत्र आगच्छ = ---------- ---------
७ प्रथमं व्यायामं कुरु = ---------- --------- ----------
८ पश्चात् भोजनं कुरु = ---------- --------- ----------
९ मोदकं खाद = ---------- ---------
१० ओदनं अपि खाद = ---------- --------- ----------
११ उद्यानं गच्छ = ---------- --------- ----------
१२ गृहं सत्वरं आगच्छ = ---------- --------- ----------

More Exercise from Lessons 1 and 2  
1You read letter
2You write a letter
3You drink milk
4Do not read a book
5त्वम् एकं पत्रं पठ
6त्वं एकं पत्रं लिख
7त्वं मधुरं दुग्धं पिब
8सत्वरं अत्र आगच्छ
9Don’t be lazy
10Go there fast
11You drink clean water
12Eat boiled rice also
13प्रथमं व्यायामं कुरु
14ओदनं अपि खाद
15पश्चात् भोजनं कुरु
16उद्यानं गच्छ तत्र खेल च


One can and should practise composing and translating (both ways - English to Sanskrit and vice versa) any number of sentences.

Words from Lesson 3 तृतीयः पाठः
Masculine Noun पुंल्लिङ्गि नामNeuter Noun नपुंसक लिङ्गि नामFeminine Noun स्त्रीलिङ्गि नामPronoun सर्वनामAdjective विशेषणम्Adverb, Conjunction, Auxiliary to verb अव्ययम्Verb क्रियापदम् (धातु) आज्ञा र्थ
16सूर्य sunयान cartकिम् what, whoतृतीय thirdपुनः again
17सत्य truthदुर्बल weakइदानीम् now
18तदानीम् then
19उपरि above
20पुरस्तात् in the front
21अधस्तात् down, from below


.Exercises -
1. Translate into Sanskrit
  1. Do not bring the cart here.
  2. Come home
  3. Stop in front
  4. Come up.
  5. Go down
  6. Do not run there.
  7. You dance now.
  8. Do not dance there.
  9. Come forth.
  10. Speak the truth.
  11. See forth and downwards
  12. Do not look upwards.
  13. Do not run again.
  14. Take meals now.
  15. Drink water afterwards.

One can and should practise composing and translating (both ways - English to Sanskrit and vice versa) any number of sentences.

More sentences from Question paper of Feb 2008 examination -
  1. (You) write a letter. (Imperative)
  2. (You) drink sweet milk. (Imperative)
  3. Afterwards eat meal.
  4. Protect the weak.
  5. Drink clean water.

More sentences from Question paper of Feb 2012 examination -
  1. First do exercise.
  2. Write clear letters.
  3. Always speak the truth.

-o-O-o-

2 comments:

Manu N. said...

could you help me in translating the sentence

shilpi ki gend laal rang ki hai.
shilpi's ball is red in colour.

my name is manu
email manuel@alohatechnology.com

Deepa Shri said...

will u please translate the below subhashitas in english?
"yowanam dhanasampathihi prabhutvamvivekitha
ekai kamapyanarthaya kimu yathra chathushtayam"
and
"jeevanthopi mruthaha pancha vyasena parikeerthithaha
dharidro vyadhitho moorkaha pravasi nithya sevakaha"